On June 15, 1921, Sadie Tanner Mossell Alexander became the first African-American to earn a PhD in Economics when he finished his work at the University of Pennsylvania.
Racism undermined Alexander’s life, as well as the collective memory of her work and the breadth of economic thought. But the speech she left proves the link between her splendor and her visionary observations of our current political economy. Indeed, she has identified economic deprivation as a major obstacle to political, racial and economic equality, but they all remain elusive today. Her solution (guaranteeing full-employment jobs) is needed to ultimately address permanent job discrimination, involuntary unemployment, inadequate wages, and racial disparities exacerbated by these frauds. It may be something like that.
Alexander worked to get a PhD in knowledge of the violence that accompanies the success of black people. Two weeks before graduating in 1921, she reported that a white resident of Tulsa burned down the Greenwood district, the country’s most prosperous African-American community, by destroying 35 blocks. read. Evacuation of approximately 10,000 African-American residents.
A few years ago, Alexander saw similar violence and injustice up close in her hometown of Philadelphia when a white mob attack on African Americans escalated into a four-day mayhem in July 1918. It was. By July 30, city police had arrested about 60 black residents. Although White was the main instigator of the deadly clash.
Inspired by African-American perceptions of social and economic mobility, the white anger was aimed at suppressing the political, geographical and economic aspirations of blacks. As a graduate student, Alexander studied the great migration of African-Americans fleeing oppression and racial terrorism in the South. They went north in search of court voting rights, education and employment opportunities, and justice. In her treatise, Alexander calculated the living expenses of Philadelphia migrants and the extent to which their income allowed them to become self-reliant. She found that the majority of migrants were able to earn a living wage, which was contrary to Philadelphia’s long-standing resident perception that migrants were an economic waste of the city.
She graduated with a great qualification. Her dissertation was published as a supplement to the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences Annual Report, and she received a professor’s nomination for employment. Still, no one hired her that year in a position commensurate with her level of education. She eventually returned to Penn and earned a law degree in 1927. This is the first black woman in the state. Alexander had an outstanding career as a lawyer in collaboration with her husband Raymond Pace Alexander to achieve African-American citizenship.
During this career, she was a key member of civil rights organizations, including the National Bar Association and the National Urban League. Alexander became an intellectual who addressed structural barriers that prevented African Americans from having full access to democratic and economic rights to citizenship. She also called for changes in social behavior and policies to remove barriers. In 1946, President Harry S. Truman appointed her as a member of the newly established Civil Rights Commission. This committee investigated the denial of civil rights and freedom, especially how black Americans deviate from our country’s ideals. The Commission’s report, “To Secure These Rights,” provided recommendations for improving civil rights, including the elimination of military racial discrimination.
By the time Alexander was a member of the Civil Rights Commission, the ghosts of racial violence left an indelible mark on the outlook for the mobility of black workers’ jobs and her economic beliefs about the role of government in the macroeconomy. Was there. Alexander was motivated by an example of the government’s ability to achieve full employment through direct job creation during World War II, including an unprecedented increase in black industrial employment, and in 1945, the basis of postwar citizenship. Right. She was the first economist in the country to do so. She feared that the War Production Board’s plans after the war would affect black workers more than white workers. She revealed this idea while speaking at an African-American rally at Florida A & M University. Her speech focused on the racial aspects of the debate that President Franklin D. Roosevelt made about the need for the Second Bill of Rights to provide economic security. Full employment is a problem of permanent unemployment for black workers, as the racism she faces in employment is persistent and the fear of white workers over competition for undersupplied jobs is often violent and deadly. Believed to be the only solution to.
As a supporter of economic justice, Alexander believes that everyone has the right to a livable wage job, which she considers to be an essential basis for enjoying democratic rights. It was. Therefore, she urged the government to provide an equitable distribution of national income and to create public works programs that address poverty and the urgent social needs associated with poverty.
Economy in the 1960s with black anger at the slum abuse of cities where decades of racial hostility and public policy trapped them, and a series of uprisings in cities of all shapes and sizes Lack of access broke out.
Alexander saw the moral side of the civil rights movement, but she also understood the dynamics of the economy thanks to her training. She knew that financial uncertainty among whites was not the cause of the racial violence that plagued blacks’ lives, despite whites’ dissenting claims. Rather, it simply acted as a promoter of their scapegoat and racial hostility towards black Americans.
Still, Alexander’s work and advice were largely ignored.
Among economics experts, Alexander was just a footnote until Julian Malvo published a sharp article in 1991 discussing the implications of his absence from economics experts. More than a decade after being motivated by Malvo’s article, I began investigating Alexander’s records and she was in the public territory through speeches to a black audience, primarily about the economic situation of African Americans. I discovered that I continue to practice my studies.
The events that led to the uprising of racial justice last summer prove the continued relevance of Alexander’s political economy thought to our current crisis. The devastating impact of covid-19 on the African-American community, the nationally recognized murder of unarmed black men, women and children by police, and the disproportionate burden and harm to black workers during pandemics are essential. As workers and unemployed, as Alexander once said, they have all been nurtured by a long history of “deterioration, discrimination and separation.”
The first PhD idea in Black Economics provides a solution to our problems today | Business
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